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Side effects were rare, including some mostly mild infections that were easily treated

The National Institutes of Health said Wednesday it closed the studies in Kenya and Uganda early, when safety monitors took a look at initial results this week and spotted the protection. The studies’ uncircumcised men are being offered the chance to undergo the procedure.

The link between male circumcision and HIV prevention was noted as long ago as the late 1980s. The first major clinical trial, of 3,000 men in South Africa, found last year that circumcision cut the HIV risk by 60 percent.

Still, many AIDS specialists had been awaiting the NIH’s results as a final confirmation.

«Male circumcision can lower both an individual’s risk of infection, and hopefully the rate of HIV spread through the community,» said AIDS expert Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

But it is not perfect protection, Fauci stressed. Men who become circumcised must not quit using condoms nor take other risks — and circumcision offers no protection from HIV acquired through anal sex or injection drug use, he noted.

«It’s not a magic bullet, but a potentially important intervention,» agreed Dr. Kevin De Cock of the World Health Organization.

Male circumcision is common at birth in the United States. But in sub-Saharan Africa, home to more than half of the world’s almost 40 million HIV-infected people, there are large swaths of populations where male circumcision is rare.

The WHO plans an international meeting early next year to discuss the studies’ results and how to translate them into policies that promote safe male circumcision — done by trained health workers with sterile equipment — while teaching men that it will not make them invulnerable.

If male circumcision were widely adopted, officials predicted that could help to avert tens of thousands of HIV infections in coming years; Fauci cited one model from South Africa that suggested possibly up to 2 million infections could be averted over a decade.

«This is tremendous news, and it could help millions of men while in turn reducing the risk faced by millions of women,» said Paul Zeitz of the Global AIDS Alliance.

Why would male circumcision play a role? Cells in the foreskin of the penis are particularly susceptible to the HIV virus, Fauci explained. Also, the foreskin is more fragile than the tougher skin surrounding it, providing a surface that the virus could penetrate more easily.

Researchers enrolled 2,784 HIV-negative men in Kisumu, Kenya, and 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, into the studies. Some were circumcised; others were just monitored.

Over two years, 22 of the circumcised Kenyans became infected with HIV compared with 47 uncircumcised men, a 53 percent reduction. In Uganda, 22 circumcised men became infected vs. 43 of the uncircumcised, a 48 percent reduction.

The researchers are offering all of the studies’ uncircumcised men the chance to undergo the procedure, 의정부출장안마 and 80 percent of the uncircumcised Ugandans already have agreed, said lead researcher Ronald Gray of Johns Hopkins University.

Side effects were rare, including some mostly mild infections that were easily treated. The rate of side effects was comparable to those seen in circumcised U.S. infants, said Robert Bailey of the University of Illinois at Chicago, who led the Kenyan trial.


Yemen Hodeida truce off to rocky start on day 1 but calm prevails amid humanitarian crisis

러시아출장안마OlO▶4281▶7511˚서울.경기.인천 수도권 No.1 출장안마 ˚서울출장안마▧경기출장안마▧인천출장안마▨영등포출장안마[kakao=russiaanma]OlO▶4281▶7511▨영등포출장마사지Sanaa — Yemen’s flashpoint city of Hodeida was calm on Tuesday following heavy clashes that erupted after a United Nations-brokered ceasefire started at midnight, pro-government sources and residents said. The truce agreed at the U.N.-sponsored peace talks in Sweden came into effect at midnight Monday, but sources said heavy clashes and air raids continued after the deadline.

«There has been complete calm since 03:00 am Yemen time (7 p.m. Monday Eastern) in the city of Hodeida,» a military source loyal to the government told AFP on Tuesday.

Residents confirmed by phone that there had been no fighting between the government forces backed by the Saudi-led coalition and Iran-aligned Houthi rebels since 03:00 am.

More in Yemen’s Civil War

But it was not possible to determine if the halt in fighting was in response to the ceasefire or just a temporary stoppage. Residents said that daily fighting would usually be fierce in the evening and at night, before coming to a standstill at dawn.

The two warring sides have however welcomed the truce in the strategic Red Sea province. Both the internationally-recognized government and the Houthi rebels said they would comply with the ceasefire.

Earlier this week, Houthi rebel foreign minister Hisham Sharaf told CBS News senior foreign correspondent Elizabeth Palmer that he believed the U.S., in particular, could help make the ceasefire work by pressuring its ally Saudi Arabia to ease the military campaign.

«The U.S. as a state… has a lot of influence in our part of the world,» Sharaf told Palmer at his office in Sanaa. «They control the weapons. They control a lot of politics in this area… So again, the U.S. can, number one, ask all parties to stop it.»

The United Nations said on Monday that the deal was to be implemented at midnight, even though the agreement reached in Sweden last week included an «immediate ceasefire» in Hodeida and its surroundings.

A U.N. official, who requested anonymity, told AFP that the delay was necessary for «operational reasons».

U.N. envoy Martin Griffiths said on Sunday that the U.N. was working with both sides to ensure the ceasefire accord was «implemented timely and properly».

The truce is supposed to be followed by the withdrawal of fighters from Hodeida, whose port is the entry point for the vast majority of imports to Yemen.

A prisoner swap involving some 15,000 detainees is planned and a «mutual understanding» was reached to facilitate aid deliveries to Yemen’s third city Taiz — under the control of loyalists but besieged by rebels.

The two sides also agreed to meet again in late January for more talks to define the framework for negotiations on a comprehensive peace settlement.

Ahead of the ceasefire coming into force, residents in Hodeida city hoped Monday that it would lead to lasting peace.

«We are hopeful that things will go back to the way they were and that there would be no aggression, no airstrikes and lasting security,» Amani Mohammed told AFP.

Another Hodeida resident, Mohammed al-Saikel, said he was optimistic the ceasefire would pave the way for a broader truce.

«We are hopeful about this ceasefire in Hodeida and one for Yemen in general,» he said. «We will reach out in peace to whoever does the same.»

 North of Hodeida in Hajjah province, at a makeshift camp for Yemenis forced to flee their homes, CBS News’ Palmer saw first-hand the desperation wrought by the grinding civil war in Yemen.

Having fled from Saudi airstrikes and vicious fighting, people in remote northern Yemen are now up against another killer: malnutrition.

Inside one tent, CBS News met a woman named Fatima who was frozen with grief and shock. Nurse Makia Mehdi explained that Fatima’s baby had starved to death just last week.

A teenager named Sara is also deeply traumatized. In 2015, Saudi warplanes bombed another camp in the area and 울진출장안마 43 people died. Sara saw it all and hasn’t said a word since.

Makia guessed that 15,000 people in that district alone were marooned in misery and utterly destitute.

Mehdi works on a malnutrition ward at a hospital in rebel-held Sanaa, where she told Palmer there are at least 25 children being treated. Among them is tiny Assam, 2, who refuses the high-nutrient paste Mehdi offers him.

«He’s vomiting,» Mehdi explains. His hunger-wracked body is too frail to even keep down the food that could save his life.


«As nearly half the entire U.S

Over the weekend, Taco Bell officials said they determined that scallions were the likely source of the bacteria. But follow-up federal testing of those samples were negative for E. coli.

\uc758\uc815\ubd80\ucd9c\uc7a5\uc548\ub9c8 - \uc591\uc8fc \ub3d9\ub450\ucc9c \ud3ec\ucc9c \ucd9c\uc7a5\ub9c8\uc0ac\uc9c0 APK Baixar - Gr\u00e1tis ...«In that context, we have not ruled out any food items,» said Dr. David Acheson, chief medical officer for the FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Health officials in New York said a sample of white onions taken from a Taco Bell restaurant tested positive for E. coli. However, that strain of bacteria hasn’t been linked to any cases of illness in the United States anytime in the previous 30 days. The positive sample initially was mistakenly identified as being green onion, Acheson said.

«The bigger possibility is that these white onions were contaminated somewhere else, the supplier or the grower. We don’t know that,» Acheson said. «It does not match any strain of any illnesses in the past 30 days.»

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed 64 E. coli cases in five states, most in New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania plus two in Delaware and one in South Carolina. The South Carolina patient had eaten at a Pennsylvania Taco Bell.

A New York City resident fell ill after eating at Taco Bell and health officials confirmed that E. coli was the culprit. The victim, identified only as a Staten Island 강진출장안마 resident, has since made a full recovery. This was the first time the strain was found in the city.

Meanwhile, nearly three dozen people have fallen ill with symptoms consistent with E. coli infection after eating at a Taco John’s restaurant in Cedar Falls, Iowa. And authorities were investigating a case in which several people became ill after eating at a Taco John’s in Albert Lea, Minn.

Kirk Smith, with the Minnesota Department of Health, said tests were being conducted to determine whether the illnesses were related to illnesses in Iowa.

Three Minnesotans with the symptoms are ages 17, 35 and 57, the Star Tribune of Minneapolis reported on its Web site Monday. The oldest person has developed a kidney complication and is hospitalized, the newspaper said.

Paul Fisherkeller, president of the Cheyenne, Wyo.-based Taco John’s, said in a statement, «We hope for the speedy recovery of anyone who has fallen ill and are cooperating fully with health departments in both states, while also conducting our own investigation.»

There is no indication the outbreaks at the two taco chains are linked, but the CDC has not ruled out a connection, said Dr. Christopher Braden, a medical epidemiologist with the agency. Iowa officials suspect a sick restaurant worker could have spread the illness. The two restaurant chains are not related.

It could take until midweek to determine if the Taco Bell outbreak is over, Braden said. However, there have been no reports of anyone falling ill after Dec. 2, he added.

Taco Bell continued to exclude scallions from its ingredient list despite the FDA’s finding. «We won’t be considering any changes to our decision until the FDA and CDC conclude their investigation,» Taco Bell spokesman Rob Poetsch said.

Taco Bell President Greg Creed said that independent testing on ingredients served in the chain’s restaurants did not indicate the presence of E. coli bacteria.

«As nearly half the entire U.S. adult population eats at a Taco Bell at least once a month, it’s easy to understand how we might be considered associated with this illness,» Creed said in a statement issued from Irvine, Calif., where the subsidiary of Yum Brands Inc. is located.

«Based on this testing and all that we know today, I can reassure you that all Taco Bell food is safe and strict standards are being upheld at all of our restaurants,» he said.

E. coli is a common and ordinarily harmless bacteria, but certain strains can cause abdominal cramps, fever, bloody diarrhea, kidney failure, blindness, paralysis, even death.

It is found in the feces of humans and livestock. E. coli infections are associated with undercooked meat. The bacteria also can be found on sprouts and leafy vegetables. The germs can be spread by people if they do not thoroughly wash their hands after using the restroom.


Since 2002, when Britain’s health watchdog recommended weight loss surgery for morbidly obese people, usually defined as those with a Body Mass Index above 40, there has been a sharp increase in the number of such procedures

Dr. Omar Faiz, a consultant surgeon at St. Mary’s Hospital in London and colleagues monitored the number of weight-loss surgeries done in government hospitals from 2000 to 2008. Overall, they found 6,953 such operations were performed, including three different types of surgeries, all designed to shrink the size of the patient’s stomach.

In 2000, there were 238 weight loss surgeries, but by 2007 there were 2,543 such operations. The study was paid for by Britain’s National Institute of Health Research.

Faiz described the increase in surgeries as «exponential,» but was unsure if it would continue.

«We don’t know whether we’ve seen the summit of the peak, but the trend still looks to be going upwards,» he said. He said there were not enough data to know how many obese people were awaiting the surgery in England, but said the number of people getting the surgery was likely only a small proportion of those who qualified for it and wanted it.

Faiz and colleagues found that the majority of patients who got the weight loss surgeries were women and were from poorer areas. Most patients were in their 40s. The surgeries also appeared to be safe; the risk of dying one year after the surgery was about 1 percent. The study was published Friday in the medical journal, BMJ.

Since 2002, 보성출장안마 when Britain’s health watchdog recommended weight loss surgery for morbidly obese people, usually defined as those with a Body Mass Index above 40, there has been a sharp increase in the number of such procedures.

Some experts weren’t surprised by the figures and said the obesity epidemic was likely to accelerate the demand for such surgeries in the future.

«It’s very alarming that people have been allowed to get so fat without anyone intervening in time, said Tam Fry, spokesman for the National Obesity Forum, a British advocacy group. He was not connected to the BMJ study.

«The fat are getting fatter and fatter and the gap between the healthy and the very unhealthy is growing,» Fry said, warning that paying for more weight loss surgeries would be a huge burden for the British government. He said experts should focus on preventing obesity before surgery becomes necessary.

«People have the idea that they can eat and eat and then get (weight loss surgery) to solve the problem,» he said. «That will be disastrous both for the individual and for the state.»


5 on NBC

The team behind «The Sound of Music» live TV special has found their Captain von Trapp.

On Friday, NBC announced that «True Blood» star Stephen Moyer will play the Austrian single father of seven in an upcoming telecast of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s acclaimed musical. Singer Carrie Underwood had previously been tapped for the role of Maria.

Moyer is no stranger to the stage. A graduate of the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art, the 43-year-old British actor has spent time with the National Theatre of Wales, the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Oxford Stage Company and the Young Vic in England.

In July, Moyer starred in a Hollywood Bowl production of «Chicago.»

He is best known for his portrayal of Bill Compton on HBO’s vampire drama, appearing on the vampire drama series since 2008.

Set at the beginning of World War II, «The Sound of Music» tells the story of Captain Georg von Trapp, an Austrian veteran of World War I, who hires former nun Maria to care after his children. Eventually, von Trapp and Maria fall in love.

First staged in 1959, 부안출장안마 the musical went on to become a huge smash, spawning a 1965 film adaptation starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer which won five Academy Awards, including best picture.

«The Sound of Music» live holiday production will air Dec. 5 on NBC.

Tell us: Do you think Moyer is a good fit to play von Trapp?

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